Arthurian Legend / Knucklas


The Arthurian legends have captured the imagination of people for centuries, inspiring countless tales of valor, chivalry, and the search for the legendary King Arthur. Although much of Arthur’s story remains shrouded in mystery and folklore, historical references to this iconic figure have appeared in texts throughout Europe and beyond.

This timeline aims to trace the evolution of Arthurian references from the earliest known mention in a Roman document about a warrior in Britain to the most recent texts that continue to perpetuate these captivating legends.

Timeline of Arthurian References:

  1. 6th Century – The Annales Cambriae (Welsh Annals):
    • Mention of the Battle of Badon Hill, associated with Arthur.
    • Location: The exact location of Badon Hill remains debated, but it is generally believed to have taken place in the West Country of England.
  2. 9th Century – Historia Brittonum (The History of the Britons):
    • Detailed account of Arthur’s twelve battles:
      • Battle of the River Glein
      • Battle of Dubglas
      • Battle of Bassas
      • Battle of Cat Coit Celidon
      • Battle of Celegion
      • Battle of Guinnion Fort
      • Battle of Agned Hill
      • Battle of City of the Legion
      • Battle of Tryfrwyd
      • Battle of Conisbrough
      • Battle of Ciltre
      • Battle of Badon
    • Locations: The specific locations of these battles are not well-documented.
  3. 12th Century – Geoffrey of Monmouth’s “Historia Regum Britanniae”:
    • Introduction of Arthur as a legendary king, Excalibur, Merlin, and the Holy Grail.
    • Origin: Geoffrey’s imaginative work contributed significantly to the development of Arthurian legends.
  4. 12th Century – Chretien de Troyes’ Arthurian Romances:
    • Introduction of elements like the Round Table and Lancelot.
    • Origin: These romantic tales added depth to Arthurian lore.
  5. 15th Century – Sir Thomas Malory’s “Le Morte d’Arthur”:
    • Compilation of Arthurian stories.
    • Origin: A comprehensive work that brought together various Arthurian narratives.
  6. Tintagel Castle:
    • A legendary location associated with the birth of King Arthur.
    • Origin: The connection to Arthur comes from Geoffrey of Monmouth’s writings in the 12th century.
  7. Legend of Princess Gwenefar of Knucklas:
    • A legend tells the story of Princess Guinevere (Welsh: *Gwenhwyfar ; Breton: Gwenivar, Cornish: Gwynnever) of Knucklas marrying Arthur the Welsh warrior in Knucklas Castle.
    • Origin: This legend is not widely documented in historical texts but remains part of local folklore and oral tradition in the region.
  8. 12th Century – France – “Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart” (Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette):
    • This French romance by Chretien de Troyes introduces Lancelot as one of the key figures in the Arthurian legend.
    • Origin: Part of the Arthurian Romances by Chretien de Troyes, this story contributes to the Arthurian tradition in French literature.
  9. 13th Century – Italy – “Tristan and Isolde”:
  • The tale of Tristan and Isolde is closely linked to the Arthurian world and is significant in Italian literature.
  • Origin: While not an Arthurian text, it is a romance that often intertwines with Arthurian legends.
  1. 14th Century – Portugal – “The Legend of the Round Table”:
  • An Arthurian adaptation by the Portuguese writer João de Barros.
  • Origin: Reflects the Arthurian influence on European literature, even in countries like Portugal.
  1. 19th Century – Russia – “The Tale of the Knight Tri Sestrychki” (The Tale of the Three Sisters):
  • An Arthurian-inspired Russian fairy tale.
  • Origin: Demonstrates the global reach of Arthurian legends, even in Russian folklore.
  1. 21st Century – Global Adaptations:
  • Contemporary literature, films, and television series around the world continue to adapt and reinterpret the Arthurian legends, showcasing their enduring appeal.


These references in Britain, France, Italy, Portugal, Russia, and other parts of the world highlight the far-reaching influence of Arthurian legends on global literature and storytelling. While the core of the legends is rooted in British tradition, they have transcended borders and continue to captivate audiences worldwide serving as a universal symbol of transformation and the potential for redemption that resonates across cultures.


Telling the Story of Arthur at storytelling events

Once upon a time, in a land filled with castles and mystery, there lived a legendary warrior named Arthur. Arthur was known far and wide for his bravery, kindness, and the magical sword he held, called Excalibur.

Arthur’s Humble Beginning

Arthur wasn’t always famous. When he was a little boy, he lived in a cozy village near a place called Knucklas. He was a kind and curious young lad with a heart full of innocence who loved exploring the hills and playing with his friends.

One day, while climbing the green hill near his home, he unearthed something very special hidden under a big, old maple tree. It was a sword! Little did Arthur know that this sword was destined to make him a great and noble king one day.

Arthur’s Adventures

As Arthur grew, he had many exciting adventures. He fought battles to protect his land from scary invaders, just like the Battle of Badon Hill. He had friends who were as brave as he was, like the noble knights of the Round Table.

Arthur’s sword, Excalibur, was always by his side, helping him make the right decisions and keep his land safe. He even took Excalibur on a quest to find the magical Holy Grail, a cup that was said to hold incredible powers.

 Arthur’s Kindness

But what made Arthur truly special was not just his bravery and sword. He was known for being kind and caring. He forgave those who made mistakes and tried to help them find their way.

The Legend Lives On

As the years went by, Arthur’s story was told and retold, becoming a legend that children like you hear today. The legend of King Arthur reminds us that even the youngest among us can grow up to be brave and kind, just like Arthur, and find our own magical adventures.

So, whenever you see a green hill, just like the one at Knucklas, remember Arthur’s humble beginning. And when you find something special, just like he found Excalibur, know that it might be the start of your own magical journey.


(Research, design and story by Grant. Story first performed at the foot of the original green hill – in *Knucklas)


  • Knucklas is a village and civil parish located in Powys, Wales. The name “Knucklas” is of Welsh origin. In Welsh, “knuck” (Cnwc)  mean “hill.” and  refers to the hill on which Knucklas Castle / Castell y Cnwclas was built.
    • *Gwenhwyfar

    “And in this place it is related that there were some brothers to Gwenhwyfar, the daughter of Gogyrfan Gawr, who were imprisoned by some of these giants. And she grieved greatly they were in captivity. But Arthur saved them each one, killing the giants, and taking the head of the biggest of them and throwing it into the middle of the river instead of a stone, in stepping across the river, to go to Castell y Cnwclas. And as he placed his foot on the head of the giant in stepping across the river Arthur said, Let the head grow in the river instead of a stone. And henceforth that river was called Afon Tyfed-iad, as the side of the giant’s head grew.”   SOURCE:  “Peniarth Ms. 118, fos. 829-837” ed. and trans. Hugh Owen. Y Cymmrodor. vol. 27. London: Honorable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1917. pp.115-152

Knucklas Castle (Gallery of artwork)

(Above Left) Original First Prize winning entry from Knighton School in competition to design logo for Knucklas Castle Community Land Project.    (Above Right. re-worked artwork for print by Grant)
(Above Left) 2nd Prize winning Knighton School entry  (Above Right Artwork by Grant) depicts the four main project groups.

See also: Mindmaps for KCCLP

(Above Left) Castle icon used on share certificate, mind maps. and above right, the proposed thrones for the annual New Members Crowning Pageant to be held in Knucklas Castle Community Orchard.
(Above) View over Knucklas Castle mound from South showing Knucklas village in foreground
(Above Left) Map of Knucklas Castle from original deeds. (Above Centre) Adaptation of logo for use on Promotional Badge by Grant
(Above Left) First artists impression of Heyope’s gold torcs by Grant. (Updated) (Above Right) First general promotional leaflet for project – artwork by Grant
(Above) View over Heyope Village and Church
Combined voices at the launch of the Knucklas Castle Community Land Project
(Above Left and Right) Stone Carving courses at Knucklas. (Above Centre) Aerial view of Knucklas Castle looking North West
(Above) Promotional literature for Herefordshire Art Week h.Art on the Community Orchard below Knucklas Castle
(Above) ‘Arthur Little’ . Proposed Green Dragon character for promotion of educational Activities for Children at the Knucklas Castle Community Land Project
(Above) Christmas banner for Knucklas Castle’s blog over the festive season. Designed by Grant
(Above Left) Promotional artwork by Grant for Knucklas Castle’s annual Apple Day as from 2009. (Above Right) Proposed sign design by Grant to be located at Knucklas village centre to links within Knucklas.
(Above) Promotional banner for project’s first website.
(Above) Lapel Badges produced by Grant for the first Knucklas Castle Community Land (Trust) public meeting.
(Above) Photo by Grant for use in promoting support for the Project from the Powys Environmental Partnership (PEP)
(Above) Display signage for Education Section of Project during first Public Meeting in Knucklas Village Community Hall
(Above) Photo-composite by Grant for promotional use by the Growing Group at Knucklas Castle. Used on original Mind Maps for project
(Above Left) Grant’s proposed sign to commemorate the planting of the Project’s Community Orchard indicating on map where clearing would be made for sign.
(Above Left) Colin ploughs the growing field ready for the Community Allotments. (Above Right) Adam plants the first Community Orchard apple tree – with a little assistance.
(Above) Celebrating the launch of the Knucklas Castle Community Land Project
… more celebrations
even … more celebrations
(Above) The stone carvers of Knucklas (hard) at work overlooking the Teme Valley
(Above) Photo taken during the first botanical survey of the wooded area around Knucklas Castle mound
(Above) Poster by Grant announcing Jan Walmsley’s round Welsh coast walk to raise funds for the Knucklas Castle Community Land Project
(Above) Poster by Grant to promote talks aimed at highlighting three of the Project’s groups and to raise funds.
(Above) Diagram of original eight groups that made up the structure of the Project
(Above) Summary graphic by Grant to show Board of project how a fourth leaflet (far left) might sit alongside existing leaflets.
(Above) Knucklas Community Centre promotion of public meeting to discuss project
(Above) Design by Grant for Project’s first leaflet holder
(Above) Photo by Grant taken during one of the moth surveys at Knucklas Castle
(Above) Photo by Grant of sculpt (The Dragon’s Tooth by Rolf Hook) on top of Knucklas Castle mound
(Above) Photo by Grant of sculpt (Artichoke by Lottie O’Leary) taken at the side entrance of the Community Allotments (now removed)
(Above) Photo by Grant looking over Knucklas Castle Community Allotments
(Above) Photo by Grant taken during a sculpt trail over Knucklas Castle.
(Above) Font and colour discipline for signage, logo and promotional graphics for the Knucklas Castle Community Land Project. (UPDATE NOTE: A hand drawn version of lettering to be used just for “Knucklas Castle” wording has been produced by Will who is pictured below holding the Project’s first open air leaflet holder designed, built and presented as a gift to the Project by Traybo Wood Designs)




(Above) Will Oleary accepting gift of two external leaflet holders for the project – designed/crafted by Traybo Wood Products)
(Above) Painting by Grant of what Knucklas Castle keep might have looked like over 800 years ago but not including the outer wall recently imaged using liDAR which extends to the East of the keep – to right of frame.
(Above) One of a series of images produced by Grant for the first Knucklas Castle Community Land Project blog.
(Above) Prototype of one of the three designs for the KCCLP Leaflet Holder (produced for Project, for free, by Traybo Wood Products)
(Above) Proposed signage to commemorate the planting of the Knucklas Castle Community Land Project’s Community Orchard.


Around the Hill. Logo for year round monthly meetings


Original square format Logo
RGB and CMYK Logo colours defined as sampled from original logo competition winner’s entry
Revised lettering to be used for print (Drawn by Will O’Leary)
Grant’s layout and typesetting for KCCLP membership certificate
Richard Parry positions Marches Poets poems around the Castle site during his ‘Coleridge in Wales’ tour.